Photographer Oscar Gustaf Rejlander was born in 1813 in Sweden, but nothing is known about his early life. He apparently studied art in Rome in the 1830s and supported himself there by working as a portrait painter and copyist of old masters. He was in England by 1841. In 1845 he had settled at no. 42 Darlington Street, Wolverhampton, where he opened a painter’s studio. He took up photography in 1853 and two years later began to exhibit his photographic compositions consisting of portraits, landscapes, nudes, anatomical studies, and subject pictures.


His genre photographs earned him the reputation as one of Britain’s leading photographers. His ‘Night in Town’ (also known as ‘Homeless’), depicting a child in rags huddled on a doorstep, was used by the Shaftesbury Society for over a hundred years to highlight the plight of homeless children. In the spring of 1862 Rejlander moved to London and settled in Malden Road, Chalk Farm. On the relationship between photography and painting, he insisted that artists had as much to learn from photography about observation and draughtsmanship as photographers had to learn from painting about composition and expression. Contemporary critics described him as ‘the father of art photography’. As a portraitist Rejlander photographed several illustrious sitters, including Alfred Tennyson, Charles Dodgson (Lewis Carroll), Henry Taylor, Charles Darwin, Gustave Doré, and Prince Albert. In 1868 he opened a richly furnished studio opposite Victoria Station. It was soon after this move that Charles Darwin entered his shop. Rejlander supplied Darwin with nine illustrations for his The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872). The photograph illustrating ‘mental distress’, that of an infant boy wailing, known as ‘Ginx’s Baby’ after the popular novel by James E. Jenkins, became a best-seller. He died in January 1875 at his home at no. 23 East Cottages, Clapham.


Frederic Albert was born in Frankfurt in 1733. He served at the Court of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and accompanied Princess Sophie Charlotte in September 1761 to England as her page and hairdresser when she was engaged to marry George III. His daughter Charlotte was born in 1765. She was appointed Assistant Keeper of the Wardrobe in 1797/8 and later became Reader to Queen Charlotte as well. She married Mr Papendiek, a servant and musician to George III.

Both continued the family tradition of being faithful servants to the Court of St James’s. Charlotte Papendiek began her retrospective journal of the ‘Court and Private Life in the Time of Queen Charlotte’ in 1833, continuing the work until her death in 1839. Her memoirs cover the first thirty years of George III’s reign until 1792. The diary was published by her granddaughter in 1886. The journal is a valuable source of information for George III’s court in a time of turmoil. Britain lost its colonies in the War of American Independence and the European political system changed dramatically in the wake of the French Revolution. In addition, problems with the King’s health led to a constitutional crisis.


Art historian Bruno Adler was born in Karlsbad, Bohemia, on 14 October 1888 into a Jewish family. His father was editor of the social democratic newspaper Volkswille. From 1910 to 1916, he studied art history, literature, and philosophy at universities in Vienna, Erlangen and Munich, acquiring his doctorate in 1917 with a dissertation on the origin of woodcuts. From 1919 to 1924, Adler lectured on art history at the Bauhaus and between 1920 and 1930 he taught at the Weimar Saxon-Grand Ducal Art School.

After the Nazis seized power, he was forced to flee to Prague. In 1936, he went to England. Writing under the pseudonym (and anagram) Urban Roedl, he released a biography of Stifter with the publisher Ernst Rowohlt, who was afterward prohibited by the Nazis from working, having been charged with disguising Jewish writers. Adler taught at Bunce Court School, a German-Jewish school in Kent founded by refugee Anna Essinger with help from British Quakers. It was a haven for many young children who had arrived on the Kindertransports. During the war, Adler worked in the German Service of the BBC at Broadcasting House, Portland Place, which had begun broadcasting in German in September 1938. Among its early contributors were novelist Thomas Mann.

Under the guise of literary entertainment, these German-language programs produced British propaganda, using established native-speaking writers in exile. Adler created the satirical ‘Frau Wernicke’, a program broadcast from summer 1940 to January 1944. The lead role, disgruntled Frau Gertrud Wernicke from Berlin who launches hilariously subversive tirades against the Nazis, was voiced by the exiled German actress and cabaret artist Annemarie Hase. It became one of the most popular programs of the BBC’s German Service. After the war he edited the monthly German-language magazine Neue Auslese aus dem Schrifttum der Gegenwart. In 1958, Adler, again writing as Roedl, re-issued his 1936 biography of Stifter. He died in December 1968.


Photographer Nicolaas Henneman was born in Heemskerk on 8 November 1813. Having worked in Paris for a while, he arrived in England around 1835. He was employed as valet to William Fox Talbot at Lacock Abbey, Wiltshire, where he assisted in preparations and printing, and he took many photographs himself. He accompanied Talbot on photographic expeditions around Britain, and in 1843 the pair ventured into France, securing important photographs later published in The Pencil of Nature (1844/6: the first first commercially published book illustrated with photographs).

Later that year, Henneman left Talbot’s employ to set up the world’s first dedicated photographic printing works at no. 8 Russell Terrace in Reading. Unable to sustain that operation he moved to London in 1847, this time in a business largely owned by Talbot but called Nicolaas Henneman’s ‘Sun Picture Rooms’ at no. 122 Regent Street. In 1848 he was joined by the young chemist Thomas Augustine Malone, and by the next year Henneman & Malone were billing themselves as ‘Photographers to the Queen’. While Henneman taught many successful photographers, he never achieved true artistry himself. In the increasingly competitive photographic world of the 1850s he lost out. By 1859 financial difficulties had overwhelmed him and he shut down his business.


In the 1860s Henneman worked as an operator for other photographers in Scarborough and Birmingham. He died in London in January 1898. Henneman’s major claim to fame was his involvement in the publication of the first photographically illustrated book on art. To the three volumes of text of William Stirling’s Annals of the Artists of Spain (1848) was added a limited edition volume of sixty-six photographic illustrations. These were the first photographs ever published of Spanish paintings, drawings, sculpture and prints, by artists including El Greco, Velázquez, Murillo, Zurbarán, Ribera and Goya, in addition to examples of architectural designs and book illustrations. The photographs were taken by Henneman who used the Talbotype (or Calotype) process invented by Talbot. The book has become extremely rare. Only fifty copies of the Annals were produced, and their deterioration, due to daylight, chemicals and other factors, began immediately.


Diplomat Wilhelm Philipp Best was born in Hanover in 1712, but he spent most of his working life in London. After completing his studies at the University of Helmstadt, he entered the service of George II and was posted to the Hanoverian legation in London in 1746 where he remained until about 1782. From the 1750s to the 1770s he lived at no. 6 St James’s Place.

His most significant contribution to Anglo-Hanoverian relations during his long residence in London was as the representative of the University of Göttingen, the Hanoverian ‘national’ university (founded in 1737). He was overseeing the London side of the acquisition of books for the university’s rapidly growing library. His surviving correspondence is a crucial source for the early history of the library. By 1800 it was to become the largest single assembly of books in Europe.

Books acquired through the London book trade formed a significant proportion of the estimated 133,200 held by the library by this date. Their presence in Göttingen contributed in no small measure to the increasing awareness of English-language authors in Central and Eastern Europe. From about 1782, when Best appears to have retired to Hanover his role was taken over by his son Georg August Best. Wilhelm Best died in Hanover in 1785.


Organ builder John Snetzler  was born Johann Schnetzler in Schaffhausen in 1710. He trained with the firm of Egedacher in Passau and initially worked in partnership with his cousin Johann Conrad Speisegger. He may have joined Christian Müller in building the famous organ in the Bavokerk in Haarlem. Snetzler arrived in London around 1742 and worked from premises in Oxford Street. He collaborated on occasion with piano maker Jacob Kirkman. His organ for St Margaret’s at King’s Lynn in 1754 earned him the praise of Charles Burney. For the next fifteen years his skills were in continuous demand all over Britain. He was naturalised in 1770, but returned to Schaffhausen in 1780 where he died in September 1785. His thriving business was continued by Swedish immigrant Jonathan Ohrmann and later taken over by Thomas Elliot.


During the last quarter of the eighteen century small numbers of young Italians left their towns and villages around Lake Como and came to Britain. Amongst these migrants were skilled carvers, gilders, glassblowers, and scientific instrument makers. They were particularly known for their production of fine barometers.

While a tradition of scientific observation of atmospheric pressure lay behind their craft, political tension encouraged their departure. Lombardy at the time was ruthlessly exploited by the ruling Habsburgs. Right at the end of the century the socio-economic situation further deteriorated when the French invaded the province. The men of Lombardy were conscripted into their army. Many of the locals preferred to take their skills elsewhere.
They travelled to France, the Low Countries and Britain and their work was sought after. In London, the first Italian instrument makers scattered across a few streets to the north of Holborn, in the parish of St Andrew Holborn: Leather Lane, Greville Street, Charles Street, Kirby Street, Cross Street, and Hatton Garden. They settled there because the area had a tradition of skill with a concentration of craftsmen, including clock and watch makers, umbrella makers, gilders, carvers, and frame makers. To Londoners, it became known as Little Italy. Immigrants themselves preferred to name it ‘Il Quartiere Italiano’. Leather Lane was at the centre of London’s Italian community since the 1700s. It would remain so until World War I.
Lake Como was part of the Grand Tour and the remarkable skills of local craftsmen were reported throughout Europe. There are numerous references to the barometer makers in the writings of travellers to the region. Historian and clergyman William Coxe who toured Europe as tutor to various wealthy travellers, wrote from Chiavenna on 21 July 1779 that the ‘neighbourhood of Turnio [Torno], and the districts bordering the lake of Como, supply, for the most part, those Italian emigrants who wander through Europe vending barometers and thermometers, of whom numbers annually resort to England for that purpose’. The journey for these migrants was far from easy.
The ‘favoured’ route before 1799 was to go north from Como, across Lake Lugano towards Airolo, and over the St Gothard Pass. On the northern side, at Andermatt, the wild waters of the River Reuss crash down the Schöllenen Gorge. Travellers crossed this via the narrow sixteenth century stone Devil’s Bridge, a structure which had been improved in the 1770s to take carriages but not stagecoaches. J.M.W. Turner painted a number of dramatic views of this route in 1802. His dramatic image of the original bridge suggests what migrants had to contend with on their search for a better life. From Andermatt the road took travellers past the Swiss lakes and into France at Basel. Travelling up the Rhine or taking the land route through France, the migrants reached Rotterdam from where they embarked on a ship for England.
Local instrument makers were quick to offer employment to Italian artisans and introduce Italian designs. One of the first successful firms of Lake Como settlers in London was Martinelli & Co. They were producing barometers in 1799 out of no. 82 Leather Lane. Ronchetti was another important name among those barometer makers. The Ronchetti Bros. worked in London at no. 172 Strand until 1880. In 1799 instrument maker Caesar Tagliabue, also from the Como area, established a company in Holborn. Before the end of 1820 he had moved to no. 23 Hatton Garden in the heart of London’s scientific instrument making community. Louis Pascal Casella was born on 29 February 1812 in Edinburgh, the son of Pasquale Casella, teacher of painting, who had moved from near Como to Britain at around the same time. The young man was employed by Tagliabue. In November 1838 he married his daughter Maria Louisa. In the same year Tagliabue took his son-in-law into partnership, changing the company’s name to Tagliabue & Casella. In 1844, following Tagliabue’s death, Casella took over the running of the business. The firm was making and selling a wide variety of scientific instruments. By the 1860s Casella & Co. sold thermometers, hydrometers, and drawing and surveying instruments, as well as meteorological instruments and accessories for photography. Among the company’s customers were the British and overseas governments, universities, and other scientific institutions.
These firms were the first of many Italian instrument makers who would settle in London. The biggest name was that of Negretti & Zambra who, from the mid-nineteenth century continued its London-based business until late in the twentieth century. Henry Angelo Ludovico Negretti was born on 13 November 1818 in Como. He did not want to follow in his father’s footsteps in operating a horse-drawn coach service over the St Gotthard Pass and moved to London in 1830. He learned his instrument skills under two established fellow-Italian makers: Caesar Tagliabue at no. 23 Hatton Garden, and Francis Augustus Pizzala at no. 4 Dorrington Street. In 1841 Negretti moved into Angelo Tagliabue’s former workshop at no. 19 Leather Lane, recently acquired by Jane Pizzi whose late husband Valentine had been a glass blower and barometer maker. The cooperation of Pizzi & Negretti continued until 1844. He then formed a partnership with Joseph Warren Zambra at no. 11 Hatton Garden in 1850. The latter, a photographer and instrument maker, was born into a family of Italian immigrants in Saffron Walden. He was apprenticed to his father before coming to London where he settled in the Italian community around Leather Lane.


The quality of the firm’s work became apparent at the 1851 Great Exhibition where they were the only instrument makers based in Britain to receive a prize medal. They were subsequently appointed instrument makers to the Queen, the Greenwich Observatory, and the British Meteorological Society. The firm became one of the biggest instrument makers in London, with workshops in Hatton Garden and Cornhill and a retail outlet on Regent Street, as well as a specialist photographic equipment emporium at the Crystal Palace in Sydenham. Zambra himself took numerous photographs of the latter building which are now among the iconic surviving images of the structure. The firm’s 1859 catalogue described 2,134 items and instruments and this range doubled a few years later. Negretti was naturalised as a British subject in April 1862. When Giuseppe Garibaldi visited London in 1864, he was invited to lead the Italian reception committee. The company of Negretti & Zambra prospered well into the twentieth century, diversifying into aircraft and industrial instruments in 1920, but eventually succumbed to a 1981 take-over bid by Western Scientific Instruments.

In 1845 Vincent Palotti, founder of the Pallotine Fathers, requested the building of a Basilica-style church at no. 136 Clerkenwell Road to serve the community of Little Italy. Irish-born architect John Miller-​​Bryson modelled the Italian church on Rome’s Basilica of San Crisogono in Trastevere. It was consecrated as the church of St Peter of all Nations in 1863. In a good Italian tradition, food and wine could soon be purchased close to the church. Luigi Terroni was born in 1853 into a poor Tuscan family of small farmers. He left home in 1870 and walked to Paris. On blistered feet he continued his journey to London, where he lodged in Clerkenwell. In 1878 he opened a food shop in Summers Street. It was London’s first Italian deli. Having married his childhood sweetheart, the couple set up home in Warner Street, Little Italy. Business flourished and Luigi opened a second shop, adjacent to St Peter’s. Its cellars extended beneath the church and it is said that worshippers could smell the fragrant aromas of cheese and dry cured salumi. To this day, the shop remains on the same site next to St Peter’s and still bears the name of its founder.

In spite of strengthening ties within the Italian community, the nature of Little Italy changed in the course of the nineteenth century. Large numbers of impoverished immigrants moved into the area in search of work. It became a district of paupers and young thieves, home to Fagin in Dickens’s Oliver Twist. By then, Little Italy received predominantly immigrants from the South, while Soho attracted Northern Italians. The Soho contingent consisted of tailors, watch­makers, artists, domestic servants, and those working in the hospitality industry. The Neapolitans and Calabrians of Little Italy held occupations of an itinerant nature, such as organ men, ice vendors, ambulant merchants, plaster bust sellers, and models for artists. It was also a safe harbour for political refugees. Giuseppe Mazzini, the apostle of Italian freedom, arrived in London after being expelled from Switzerland. He initially lived above the Italian barbers at no. 10 Laystall Street. Later, whilst living at no. 5 Hatton Garden, he set up the Società per il Progresso degli Operai Italiani which served the purpose of harnessing nationalist feelings among the immigrant community. Education was considered of crucial importance. With funds provided by supportive Scottish and English friends, he opened a free school where two hundred deprived Italian children received a rudimentary education. Established on 10 November 1841, it was the first Italian school in London. Charles Dickens was a benefactor.

Reminders of the Italian impact on the manufacture of precision instruments in the capital remain to this day. Comitti of London was founded in 1845 by Onorato Comitti, a precision instrument maker who had started a business manufacturing barometers in Little Italy. He opened his first workshop in 1850 alongside other specialist makers in the area. He quickly achieved an unsurpassed reputation for his recording instruments, including high quality mercury and aneroid barometers. During the late Victorian period the company gained renown as one of Britain’s finest clockmakers, receiving the Diploma of Honour for its workmanship in 1888. In 2015, Comitti remains a family-owned business with a proud Italian history.


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